Karachi (Urdu: کراچی‎; Sindhi: ڪراچي‎; ALA-LC: Karācī, IPA: [kəˈrɑːˌtʃi]) is the largest and most populous city in Pakistan[14] and 7th largest metropolitan city in the world.[12] Karachi is the capital of Sindhprovince. Ranked as a beta world city,[15][16] the city is Pakistan’s premier industrial and financial centre.[17] Karachi is also Pakistan’s most cosmopolitan city.[18] Situated on the Arabian Sea, Karachi serves as a transport hub, and is home to two of Pakistan’s two largest seaports, the Port of Karachi and Port Bin Qasim, as well as the busiest airport in Pakistan.

Though the Karachi region has been inhabited for millennia,[19] the city was founded as a village named Kolachi[20] that was established as a fortified settlement in 1729.[21] The settlement drastically increased in importance with the arrival of British colonialists who embarked on a major works to transform the city into a major seaport, and established connections to the extensive British Indian railway network.[20] By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh with an estimated population of 400,000.[18] Immediately following independence of Pakistan, the city’s population increased dramatically with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of Muslim refugees from India.[22] The city experienced rapid economic growth following independence, attracting migrants from throughout Pakistan and South Asia.[23]